Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) is commonly used in laboratory animals, largely because the technique is apparently easy to perform compared to other parenteral methods. This is in contrast to human medicine. The technique has a number of potential weaknesses which need to be addressed. The purpose of this wikipage is to collect information about scientific studies of the technique, as well as relevant user experience. AS191219 (talk) 08:33, 18 March 2020 (UTC)
The BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW joint working group's report on refinement of procedures for substance administration cites a number of limitations and potential problems with the technique. They conclude that this route should not be used routinely (except for administration of certain anaesthetics) as other routes are conveniently accessible and usually preferred for research purposes. The technique is not recommended for animals larger than rodents, nor for pregnant animals since the needle can puncture the gravid uterus. They state that the technique should never be used with birds because the substance may go into the air sacs. Substances which are irritant can be life threatening when administered by this route. There can be appreciable reaction in the peritoneal cavity including pain, formation of fibrous tissue and adhesions. The report contains references on the subject.
- Intraperitoneal Drug Administration (In Neglected Factors in Pharmacology and Neuroscience Research, Ed. V. Claassen)
- University of Wollongong Animal Ethics Committee (2019): Position Statement on Intraperitoneal Injections in Rabbits
- Al Shoyaib et al. (2019): Intraperitoneal Route of Drug Administration: Should it Be Used in Experimental Animal Studies?
- Coria-Avila et al. (2017): Cecum location in rats and the implications for intraperitoneal injections
- Wokke (2017): Refinement: Evaluating stress and accuracy of different intraperitoneal techniques in mice
- Zatroch et al. (2019): Refinement of intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus)
- Reimer et al. (2019): Intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital is associated with pain in rats.
- Gjendal et al. (2019): Burrowing and nest building activity in mice after exposure to grid floor, isofluorane or ip injections
- Turner et al. (2011): Administration of Substances to Laboratory Animals: Routes of Administration and Factors to Consider
- Ballard (2009): Intraperitoneal route of administration: how accurate is this technique?
- Coria-Avila et al. (2007) Cecum location in rats and the implications for intraperitoneal injections
- Gaines Das & North (2007): Implications of experimental technique for analysis and interpretation of data from animal experiments: outliers and increased variability resulting from failure of intraperitoneal injection procedures
- Svendsen (2005): Ethics and Animal Welfare Related to in vivo Pharmacology and Toxicology in Laboratory Animals
- Ravanel (1933): The hazards of intraperiteonal injections
- Guarnieri (2016): Considering the risks and safety of intraperitoneal injections
- Davis et al. (2014): Behavioral, clinical and pathological effects of multiple daily intraperitoneal injections on female mice
- Procedures with Care: Intraperiteonal injection in the mouse
- Lewis et al. (1966): Error of intraperiteonal injections in rats
- Wokke (2017): Refinement: Evaluating stress and accuracy of different intraperitoneal injection techniques in mice